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2017年雅思词汇精选:咖啡的学问

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2017-08-12 12:00

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  2017年雅思词汇精选:咖啡的学问

  1.Espresso意式浓缩咖啡

  浓缩咖啡(Espresso)或意式浓缩咖啡,是一种口感强烈的咖啡类型,方法是以极热但非沸腾的热水,借由高压冲过研磨成很细的咖啡粉末来冲出咖啡。它发明及发展于意大利,年代始于20世纪初,但直到1940年代中期以前,它是种单独透过蒸气压力制作出的饮品。在发明弹簧瓣杠杆(spring piston lever)咖啡机,并成功商业化,将浓缩咖啡转型成为今日所知的饮品。制作过程用到的压力常为9到10个大气压力或巴的压力。

  Espresso is a concentrated beverage brewed by forcing a small amount of nearly boiling water under pressure through finely ground coffee beans. Espresso often has a thicker consistency than coffee brewed by other methods, a higher concentration of suspended and dissolved solids, and crema(meaning cream, but being a reference to the foam with a creamy texture that forms as a result of the pressure). As a result of the pressurized brewing process the flavours and chemicals in a typical cup of coffee are very concentrated. Espresso is the base for other drinks, such as a latte,cappuccino, macchiato, mocha, or americano. Espresso has more caffeine per unit volume than most beverages, but the usual serving size is smaller—a typical 60 mL (2 US fluid ounce) of espresso has 80 to 150 mg of caffeine, less than the 95 to 200 mg of a standard 240 mL (8 US fluid ounces) cup of drip-brewed coffee.

  2.cappuccino:卡布奇诺

  20世纪初期,意大利人阿奇布夏发明蒸汽压力咖啡机的同时,也发展出了卡布奇诺咖啡。卡布奇诺是一种加入以同量的意大利特浓咖啡和蒸汽泡沫牛奶相混合的意大利咖啡。此时咖啡的颜色,就像卡布奇诺教会的修士在深褐色的外衣上覆上一条头巾一样,咖啡因此得名。传统的卡布奇诺咖啡是三分之一浓缩咖啡,三分之一蒸汽牛奶和三分之一泡沫牛奶。

  Cappuccino is an Italian coffee drink traditionally prepared with espresso, hot milk, and steamed-milk foam. The name comes from the Capuchin friars, referring to the colour of their habits.

  A cappuccino is a coffee drink topped with foamed milk. It is made in a steam-producing espresso machine.Espresso is poured into the bottom third of the cup, followed by a similar amount of hot milk. The top third of the drink consists of milk foam; this foam can be decorated with artistic drawings made with the same milk, called latte art. The drinker may sprinkle shaved chocolate, raw sugar, cinnamon, or other spices onto the top of the finished drink, or have chocolate melted into the coffee before the milk is added. Cappuccinos are served with a teaspoon and then consumed.

  In a traditional cappuccino, as served in Europe and artisan coffee houses in the United States, the total of espresso and milk/foam make up between approximately 150–180 mL (5–6 imp fl oz; 5–6 US fl oz). Commercial coffee chains in the US more often serve the cappuccino as a 360 mL (13 imp fl oz; 12 US fl oz) drink or larger.

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