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2019-08-05 15:55


【 liuxue86.com - 雅思真题 】


  Passage1: 非洲某个国家的农业


  A By tradition land in Luapula is not owned by individuals, but as in many other parts of Africa is allocated by the headman or headwoman of a village to people of either sex, according to need. Since land is generally prepared by hand, one ulupwa cannot take on a very large area; in this sense land has not been a limiting resource over large parts of the province. The situation has already changed near the main townships, and there has long been a scarcity of land for cultivation in the Valley. In these areas registered ownership patterns are becoming prevalent.

  B Most of the traditional cropping in Luapula, as in the Bemba area to the east, is based on citemene, a system whereby crops are grown on the ashes of tree branches. As a rule, entire trees are not felled (v. 砍到),but are pollarded (v. 截去树梢)so that they can regenerate. Branches are cut over an area of varying size early in the dry season, and stacked to dry over a rough circle about a fifth to a tenth of the pollarded area. The wood is fired before the rains and in the first year planted with the African cereal finger millet (Eleusine coracana). The grain of this crop is used to brew local beers such as cipumu, which contribute several vitamins of the B complex to peoples’ diet. Cipumu is also used in cementing reciprocal working relationships (Pottier 1985).

  C During the second season, and possibly for a few seasons more the area is planted to variously mixed combinations of annuals ( n. 一年生植物)such as maize, pumpkins (Telfiria occidentalis) and other cucurbits, sweet potatoes, groundnuts, Phaseolus beans and various leafy vegetables, grown with a certain amount of rotation (n. 轮流). The diverse sequence ends with vegetable cassava, which is often planted into the developing last-but-one crop as a relay.

  D Richards (1969) observed that the practice of citemene entails a definite division of labour between men and women. A man stakes out a plot in an unobtrusive manner, since it is considered provocative towards one’s neighbours to mark boundaries in an explicit way. The dangerous work of felling branches is the men’s province, and involves much pride. Branches are stacked by the women, and fired by the men. Formerly women and men cooperated in the planting work, but the harvesting was always done by the women. At the beginning of the cycle little weeding is necessary, since the firing of the branches effectively destroys weeds. As the cycle progresses weeds increase and nutrients eventually become depleted to a point where further effort with annual crops is judged to be not worthwhile: at this point the cassava is planted, since it can produce a crop on nearly exhausted soil. Thereafter the plot is abandoned, and a new area pollarded for the next citemene cycle.

  E When forest is not available-this is increasingly the case nowadays-various ridging systems (ibala) are built on small areas, to be planted with combinations of maize, beans, groundnuts and sweet potatoes, usually relayed with cassava. These plots are usually tended by women, and provide subsistence. Where their roots have year-round access to water tables (n. 地下水位、潜水面)mango, guava and oil-palm trees often grow around houses, forming a traditional agroforestry (n. 农林业)system. In season some of the fruit is sold by the roadside or in local markets.

  F The margins of dambos are sometimes planted to local varieties of rice during the rainy season, and areas adjacent to vegetables irrigated with water from the dambo during the dry season. The extent of cultivation is very limited, no doubt because the growing of crops under dambo conditions calls for a great deal of skill (Dougnac 1987:9-10). Near towns some of the vegetable produce is sold in local markets.

  G Fishing has long provided a much needed protein supplement (n. 补充)to the diet of Luapulans, as well as being the one substantial source of cash. Much fish is dried for sale to areas away from the main waterways. The Mweru and Bangweulu Lake Basins are the main areas of year-round fishing, but the Luapula River is also exploited (v. 开采)during the latter part of the dry season. Several previously abundant and desirable species, such as the Luapula salmon or mpumbu (Labeo altivelis) and pale (Sarotherodon machochir) have all but disappeared from Lake Mweru, apparently due to mismanagement (Huckaby 1979).

  H Fishing has always been a far more remunerative activity in Luapula that crop husbandry (n. 农业、资源管理). A fisherman may earn more in a week than a bean or maize grower in a whole season. I sometimes heard claims that the relatively high earnings to be obtained from fishing induced an‘ easy come, easy go’ outlook among Luapulan men. On the other hand, someone who secures good but erratic earnings may feel that their investment in an economically productive activity is not worthwhile because Luapulans fail to cooperate well in such activities. Besides, a fisherman with spare cash will find little in the way of working equipment to spend his money on. Better spend one’s money in the bars and have a good time!

  I Only small numbers of cattle or oxen are kept in the province owing to the prevalence of the tse-tse fly. For the few herds, the dambos provide subsistence grazing during the dry season. The absence of animal draft power greatly limits peoples’ ability to plough (n. 耕、犁)and cultivate land: a married couple an rarely manage to prepare by hand-hoeing.

  J Most people keep freely roaming chickens and goats. These act as a reserve for bartering ( 物物交换), but may also be occasionally slaughtered for ceremonies or for entertaining important visitors. These animals are not a regular part of most peoples’ diet.

  K Citemene has been an ingenious system for providing people with seasonal production of high quality cereals and vegetables in regions of acid, heavily leached soils. Nutritionally, the most serious deficiency was that of protein. This could at times be alleviated when fish was available, provided that cultivators lived near the Valley and could find the means of bartering for dried fish. The citemene/fishing system was well adapted to the ecology of the miombo regions and sustainable for long periods, but only as long as human population densities stayed at low levels.

  L Although population densities are still much lower than in several countries of South-East Asia, neither the fisheries nor the forests and woodlands of Luapula are capable, with unmodified traditional practices, of supporting the people in sustainable manner. For instance, even in a normal season people suffer from a lack of energy, protein, vitamins and minerals in the diet. A third of under-five children brought to clinics are either stagnant (adj. 停滞的)in growth, or are losing weight.

  M Overall, people must learn to intensify and diversify their productive systems while yet ensuring that these systems will remain productive in the future, when even more people will need food. Increasing overall production of food, though a vast challenge in itself, will not be enough, however. At the same time storage and distribution systems must allow everyone access to at least a moderate share of the total.

  Questions 1-4 .................................................................................

  Complete the sentences below with words taken from Reading Passage 1.

  Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.

  Write your answers in boxes 1-4 on your answer sheet.

  1 In Luapula land allocation is in accordance with

  2 The citemene system provides the land with       where crops are planted.

  3 During the second season, the last planted crop is

  4 Under suitable conditions, fruit trees are planted near

  Questions 5-8 .................................................................................

  Classify the following items with the correct description.

  Write your answers in boxes 5-8 on your answer sheet

  A fish

  B oxen

  C goats

  5 be used in some unusual occasions, such as celebrations.

  6 cannot thrive for being affected by the pests.

  7 be the largest part of creating profit.

  8 be sold beyond the local area.

  Questions 9-12 ...............................................................................

  Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1?

  In boxes 9-12 on your answer sheet, write

  TRUE if the sataement agrees with the information

  FALSE if the statement contradicts the information

  NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this

  9 People rarely use animals to cultivate land.

  10 The local residents eat goats on a regular time.

  11 When it is a busy time, children are usually taken as the labor force.

  12 Though citemene has been a sophisticated system, it could not provide enough protein.

  Questions 13 ...................................................................................

  Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.

  Write the correct letter in the box 13 on your answer sheet.

  What is the writer’s opinion about the traditional ways of practices?

  A They can supply the nutrition that people need.

  B They are not capable of providing adequate support to the population.

  C They are productive systems that need no more improving.

  D They will be easily modified in the future.

  1. need

  2. ashes

  3. vegetable cassava

  4. houses

  5. C

  6. B

  7. A

  8. A

  9. TRUE

  10. FALSE


  12. TRUE

  13. B

  Passage2: 考古发现古埃及水下遗迹


  Passage3: facial expression面部表情


  A A facial expression is one or more motions or positions of the muscles in the skin. These movements convey the emotional state of the individual to observers. Facial expressions are a form of nonverbal communication. They are a primary means of conveying social information among aliens, but also occur in most other mammals ( 哺乳动物) and some other animal species. Facial expressions and their significance in the perceiver can, to some extent, vary between cultures with evidence from descriptions in the works of Charles Darwin.

  B Humans can adopt a facial expression to read as a voluntary action. However, cause expressions are closely tied to emotion, they are more often involuntary ( 不知不觉的). It can be nearly impossible to avoid expressions for certain emotions, even when it would be strongly desirable to do so; a person who is trying to avoid insulting an individual he or she finds highly unattractive might , nevertheless, show a brief expression of disgust before being able to reassume a neutral expression. Microexpressions( 微表情)are one example of this phenomenon. The close link between emotion and expression can also work in the other direction; it has been observed that voluntarily assuming an expression can actually cause the associated emotion.

  C Some expressions can be accurately interpreted even between members of different species- anger and extreme contentment ( 满足, 满意) being the primary examples . Others , however, are difficult to interpret even in familiar individuals. For instance, disgust and fear can be tough to tell apart. Because faces have only a limited range of movement, expressions rely upon fairly minuscule differences in the proportion and relative position of facial features, and reading them requires considerable sensitivity to same. Some faces are often falsely read as expressing some emotion, even when they are neutral, because their proportions naturally resemble those another face would temporarily assume.

  D Also, a person 1s eyes reveal much about how they are feeling, or what they are thinking. Blink rate( 眨眼率)can reveal how nervous or at ease a person may be. Research by Boston College professor Joe Tecce suggests that stress levels are revealed by blink rates. He- supports his data with statistics on the relation between the blink rates of presidential candidates and their success in their races. Tecce claims that the faster blinker in the presidential debates has lost every election since 1980. Though Tecce 1 s data is interesting, it is important to recognize that non-verbal communication is multi-channeled, and focusing on only one aspect is reckless. Nervousness can also be measured by examining each candidates’ perspiration, eye contact and stiffness.

  E As Charles Darwin noted in his book The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals:the young and the old of widely different races, both with man and animals, express the same state of mind by the same movements. Still, up to the mid— 20th century most anthropologists ( 人类学家)believed that facial expressions were entirely learned and could therefore differ among cultures. Studies conducted in the 1960s by Paul Ekman eventually supported Darwin’s belief to a large degree.

  F Ekman’s work on facial expressions had its starting point in the work of psychologist Silvan Tomkins. Ekman showed that contrary to the belief of some anthropologists including Margaret Mead, facial expressions of emotion are not culturally determined, but universal across human cultures. The South Fore people of New Guinea were chosen as subjects for one such survey. The study consisted of 189 adults and 130 children from among a very isolated population, as well as twenty three members of the culture who lived a less isolated lifestyle as a control group. Participants were told a story that described one particular emotion; they were then shown three pictures (two for children) of facial expressions and asked to match the picture which expressed the story’s emotion.

  G While the isolated South Fore people could identify emotions with the same accuracy as the non-isolated control group, problems associated with the study include the fact that both fear and surprise were constantly misidentified. The study concluded that certain facial expressions correspond to particular emotions and can not be covered, regardless of cultural background, and regardless of whether or not the culture has been isolated or exposed to the mainstream.

  H Expressions Ekman found to be universal included those indicating anger, disgust, fear, joy, sadness, and surprise (note that none of these emotions has a definitive social component, such as shame, pride, or schadenfreude). Findings on contempt (which is social) are less clear, though there is at least some preliminary evidence that this emotion and its expression are universally recognized. This may suggest that the facial expressions are largely related to the mind and each parts on the face can express specific emotion.

  Questions 28-32 .............................................................................


  Complete the Summary paragraph described below. In boxes 28-33 on your answer sheet, write the correct answer with NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS

  The result of Ekman’s study demonstrates that fear and surprise are persistently 28          and made a conclusion that some facial expressions have something to do with certain 29        which is impossible covered, despite of 29       and whether the culture has been 30       or 31       to the mainstream.

  Questions 33-38 .............................................................................

  The reading Passage has seven paragraphs A-H.

  Which paragraph contains the following information?

  Write the correct letter J-J^ in boxes 34-38 on your answer sheet.

  NB You may use any letter more than once.

  33 the difficulty identifying the actual meaning of facial expressions

  34 the importance of culture on facial expressions

  35 collected data for the research on the relation between blink and the success in elections

  36 impossible to differentiate some closely related expressions

  37 an indicator to reflect one’s extent of nervousness

  38 the relation between emotion and facial expressions

  Questions 39-40 .............................................................................

  Choose two letters from the A-E

  Write your answers in boxes 39-40 on your answer sheet.

  Which Two of the following statements are true according to Ekman’s theory?

  A No evidence shows animals have their own facial expressions.

  B Mind controls man’s facial expressions.

  C Facial expressions are concerning different cultures.

  D Different spots on face convey certain state of mind.

  E The definite relationship between facial expressions and state of mind exists

  28. misidentified

  29. emotions

  30. cultural background

  31. isolated

  32. exposed

  33. C

  34. A

  35. D

  36. H

  37. D

  38. B

  39. B

  40. D






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