Short Answer Questions（填空题） 6
1. 城市扩张需要这种石油去取代传统能源 True
2. 提取这种石油成分的科学家对于生产这种能源没有兴趣。 False
3. 很多人声称提取出来的成分是可以用来治疗疾病的。 NG
4. 研究人是相信这种成分是可以作为燃料来使用的。 TRUE
5. In the 1985s, 装这种石油的容器比这种石油本身要贵。 TRUE
7. 第一条管道的建立收到了工人的抵制。 TRUE
8. 创建的公司叫什么名字。 standard oil
9. oil refiners
10. 一个人从亚洲运回的除了油还有什么东西。 sugar
11. 运输用的红的桶使用什么材料制成的。 Welsh tin
12. 为什么做慈善，因为得了 关节炎
13. 在什么领域进行了投资： Medical research
14. C imagining leads to yawning
15. D occupation and inclination to yawning
16. A overview of research
17. B body temperature and yawning
18. B disapprove of a theory
19. B not difference in gender
20. C mental disorder
21. A the way we breathe
22. B trained yawn more than the untrained
26. a communication system
A When a scientist began to study yawning in the 1980s, it was difficult to convince some of his research students of the merits of “yawning science.” Although it may appear quirky (诡异) his decision to study yawning was a logical extension to human beings of my research in developmental neuroscience, reported in such papers as “Wing-flapping during Development and Evolution.” As a neurobehavioral problem, there is not much difference between the wing-flapping of birds and the face- and body-flapping of human yawners.
B Yawning is an ancient, primitive act. Humans do it even before they are born, opening wide in the womb (子宫) . Some snakes unhinge their jaws to do it. One species of penguins yawns as part of mating. Only now are researchers beginning to understand why we yawn, when we yawn and why we yawn back. A professor of cognitive neuroscience at Drexel University in Philadelphia, Steven Platek, studies the act of contagious yawning, something done only by people and other primates.
C In his first experiment, he used a psychological test to rank people on their empathic (感情嵌入的) feelings. He found that participants who did not score high on compassion did not yawn back. “We literally had people saying, ‘Why am I looking at people yawning?” Professor Platek said. “It just had no effect.”
D For his second experiment, he put 10 students in an magnetic resonance imaging machine as they watched video tapes of people yawning. When the students watched the videos, the part of the brain which reacted was the part scientists believe controls empathy – the posterior cingulate (皮层的) , in the brain’s middle rear.” I don’t know if it’s necessarily that nice people yawn more, but 1 think it’s a good indicator of a state of mind,” said Professor Platek. “It’s also a good indicator if you’re empathizing with me and paying attention.”
E His third experiment is studying yawning in those with brain disorders, such as autism and schizophrenia, in which victims have difficulty connecting emotionally with others. A psychology professor at the University of Maryland, Robert Provine, is one of the few other researchers into yawning. He found the basic yawn lasts about six seconds and they come in bouts with an interval of about 68 seconds. Men and women yawn or half-yawn equally often, but men are significantly less likely to cover their mouths which may indicate complex distinction in genders.” A watched yawner never yawns，,” Professor Provine said. However, the physical root of yawning remains a mystery. Some researchers say it’s coordinated within the hypothalamus (下丘脑) of the brain, the area that also controls breathing.
F Yawning and stretching also share properties and may be performed together as parts of a global motor complex. But they do not always co-occur—people usually yawn when we stretch, but we don’t always stretch when we yawn, especially before bedtime. Studies by J. I. P , G. H. A. Visser and H. F. Prechtl in the early 1980s, charting movement in the developing fetus using ultrasound, observed not just yawning but a link between yawning and stretching as early as the end of the first prenatal trimester (预产期）.
G The most extraordinary demonstration of the yawn-stretch linkage occurs in many people paralyzed on one side of their body because of brain damage caused by a stroke. The prominent British neurologist Sir Francis Walshe noted in 1923 that when these hemiplegics yawn, they are startled and mystified to observe that their otherwise paralyzed arm rises and flexes automatically in what neurologists term an “associated response.” Yawning apparently activates. undamaged, unconsciously controlled connections between the brain and the cord motor system innervating the paralyzed (瘫痪的) limb. It is not known whether the associated response is a positive prognosis for recovery, nor whether yawning is therapeutic for reinnervation(再生) or prevention of muscular atrophy.
H Clinical neurology offers other surprises. Some patients with “locked-in” syndrome, who are almost totally deprived of the ability to move voluntarily, can yawn normally. The neural circuits for spontaneous yawning must exist in the brain stem near other respiratory and vasomotor centers, because yawning is performed by anencephalic(无脑畸形) who possess only the medulla oblongata (脊髓延髓). The multiplicity of stimuli of contagious yawning, by contrast, implicates many higher brain regions.
Multiple Choices（选择题） 5
27. cinematographer 作用是帮助观众把关注点放在导演希望他们注意的点上。 YES
28. cinematographer 和director关系差 NG
29. 电影摄影师需要艺术和技术方面的能力。 YES
30. 两个人（一个摄影师一个女演员）工作时关系差。 NG
31. 文章讲新西兰电影是为想要说明什么： 说明新西兰早期电影比较简单，跟其他国家比，较差。
32. 讲的一部新西兰电影（两个单词开头都是B） 这个电影跟新西兰其他电影相比取得了突破，比较成功。
33. 还是说这部新西兰电影，说摄影师用了什么拍摄手法： 用比较个人的风格展示了一个国家，城市和人民
34. 讲问一个导演的第二部电影，（摄影师换了，换成了新人，手法比较写实，跟上一部不一样），选的是这部电影有unique version.
35. 讲的还是这个导演第三部电影，问作者觉得他这部电影不好在哪里：故事线过于松散story line(loose).
36. 文章讲了70年代电影关注countryside，选项rural areas
37. 文章讲难度在environment， 选项：weather
38. 讲解决问题的：rental company
39. 还有一个问题是通过解决，文章说management，选项是：good leadership
40. 最后一个是新西兰电影从业者与世界其他地方比的优势：文章说大家一起合作。选项是greater equality